Thursday, March 5, 2015

Rabinal Achi

In 2008 I took family members to St. Peter Stiftskeller Restaurant in Salzburg. Housed in a cave, the establishment claims to be the oldest restaurant in Central Europe. We enjoyed a unique ambiance dining in a place that has been serving food to travelers for over 1,200 years.

I can only imagine the thrill of attending a play that has been performed since the early 1400's. That is possible each January in Rabinal, Baja Verapaz, Gautemala. The drama is called Rabinal Achi "Man of Rabinal" aka Xajoj Tun "Dance of the Trumpets." It is the only precontact Mayan theater extant. The definitive modern edition of this UNESCO-designated masterpiece was published by Oxford University Press in 2003.
Pre-contact Guatemalan Play
Dennis Tedlock, translator, spent his career as a distinguished member of the English and Anthropology faculties at SUNY Buffalo. Tedlock is best known for his widely-read translation of Popol Vuh published by Simon & Schuster in 1985 with a revised & expanded edition in 1996.

In the 1400's the Quiche capital was Utatlan near modern Santa Cruz del Quiche in Quiche. The Kaqchikel capital was Iximche near modern Tecpan Guatemala in Chimaltenango. The Rabinal capital was Rabinal in Baja Verapaz. The play is set in Rabinal and at the fortress on Kaqyuq' "Red Mountain", which overlooks the city from the north. Utatlan was about 70 air kilometers west of Rabinal. Iximche was about 65 air kilometers to the southwest.
Capitals of Quichean Polities ca. AD 1430
The main characters in the drama are:
  • Lord Five Thunder, Rabinal ruler
  • Man of Rabinal, one of Lord Five Thunder's warriors
  • Man of Quiche called Cawek of the Forest People
The most prominent Quiche ruler in that era was K'iq'ab' "Quicab" who took a great deal of Rabinal territory by force. Prior to Quicab's depredations, for instance, the modern towns of Zacualpa and Joyabaj were part of Rabinal's domain and spoke Achi (p. 185). Cawek was one of Quicab's warriors turned outlaw and may even have been his son. As the play opens Man of Rabinal has taken Cawek prisoner. Man of Rabinal eventually takes Cawek to Lord Five Thunder. The play ends with Cawek's execution atop Red Mountain.

This is the second Quichean volume we are analyzing for possible Book of Mormon connections. In the first, Kaqchikel Chronicles, we found 117 parallels. This article will continue the numbering system from that previous article with the addition of "k" for a correspondence found in Kaqchikel Chronicles and "r" for a parallel from Rabinal Achi. When a person, place, or thing is found in both Kaqchikel Chronicles and Rabinal Achi both "k" and "r" are present.

1 k r. Rabinal Achi was originally in the Achi dialect of K'iche' Mayan, recorded in Latin characters and then translated into various European languages beginning in 1862 (p. 208).

5 k r. Females have small roles in Rabinal Achi, but not speaking parts.

12 k r. Rabinal Achi contains a thorough mixing of history with religion and metaphysics.

18 k r. Rabinal lands were north of the Motagua. This large east-west river was a major boundary in Rabinal geography.

23 k r. Rabinal Achi is full of parallelisms and repetitions. The speakers typically parrot what the other just said before presenting their new material (p. 221). Even a listener who does not understand K'iche' can tell the performers are speaking in parallel verse (p. 16).

25 k r, 26 k r. Man of Rabinal asked Cawek "where is your mountain? where is your valley?" (p. 30). In other words, where are you from?

28 k r. Cawek expects his posterity to revere his memory (p. 105).

34 k r. A play called Baile de San Jorge is popular in Rabinal. It recounts the myth of Saint George and the dragon with touches that recall the ubiquitous Mesoamerican plumed serpent (p. 188).

37 k r, 70 k r. Cawek, portending his fate, describes himself as a drop of water (p. 35).

40 k r. Cawek says his descendants will hear his words (p. 105).

43 k r. Lord Five Thunder's mountaintop fortress had great walls (p. 34).

48 k r. The Quiche and Rabinal peoples considered themselves "elder and younger brother one to the other" (p. 70).

55 k r. The Rabinal paid tribute to the Quiche (p. 153).

57 k r. Man of Rabinal and Cawek describe a military confrontation "down in the canyons, up on the heights" (pp. 63, 69).

65 k r. Lord Five Thunder had a mun "slave" attending him (pp. 1, 309).

68 k r. Man of Rabinal began many sentences with the phrase "To tell the truth" (p. 52).

78 k r. The Quiche capital, Utatlan, had two citadels. The Rabinal called them Q'umarka'j and Chi Ismachi' "Old Camp and Whisker Place" (p. 65).

100 k r. Lord Five Thunder's vassals harvested honey for his sustenance (p. 36).

104 k r. Ajaw Job' Toj "Lord Five Thunder" bore the name of Jun Toj "One Thunder," patron deity of the Rabinal nation (p. 344).
118 r. Lord Five Thunder employed the services of two warrior priests costumed as apex predators kot "eagle" and b'alam "jaguar" representing powerful forces of nature (p. 1). The Book of Mormon represents the entire animal kingdom with the phrase "beasts of the field and the fowls of the air" 2 Nephi 2:13, Alma 34:10.

119 r. Lord Five Thunder's young maiden daughter was called Uchuch Q'uq', Uchuch Raxom "Mother of Quetzal Feathers, Mother of Glistening Green (p. 345). When presented to Cawek, she carried additional titles "(Mother) of jade, of precious beads." The resplendent quetzal bird was sacred in ancient Mesoamerica and jade had great religious and spiritual value. The young girl is precious because she will fetch a high bride price. The Book of Mormon also calls a maiden a mother, describing a virgin who will give birth to deity 1 Nephi 11:18, 2 Nephi 17:14. The text describes her as precious Alma 7:10.

120 r. Cawek of the Forest People was a renegade, not cultivating crops, and on the run (pp. 1, 30, 54, 56). The Book of Mormon describes a group of outlaws Helaman 11:28 who lived in the wilderness Helaman 11:31, did not cultivate crops 3 Nephi 4:19-20, and were hunted from place to place Helaman 6:37.

121 r. Throughout the play, the couplets "ax and shield" (p. 1) or "weapon and shield" (p. 30) represent military power. Moronitranslated the similar couplet "with their swords and with their shields" from the Jaredite records Ether 15:24.

122 r. The stone ax was an important weapon and symbol in Maya culture (p. 2) as it was in the Book of Mormon Enos 1:20, Mormon 6:9.

123 r. The terms "sky, earth" are invoked dozens of times in Rabinal Achi. This is an abbreviated version of the ancient phrase "Heart of Sky, Heart of Earth" referring to deity (p. 2). The Book of Mormon version of this phrase is "heaven and earth" 2 Nephi 25:12, Jacob 2:5, Mosiah 4:9 which appears dozens of times in the text referring to the power of God 2 Nephi 29:7.

124 r. Quiche kings, including the most famous, Quicab, were from the lineage of Cawek (p. 3). Nephite kings were descendants of Nephi Mosiah 25:13.

125 r. Cawek declared that because of his capture, his destiny had been turned upside down (p. 4). This same idea is expressed in the Book of Mormon in a similar way 2 Nephi 27:27 citing Isaiah 29:16.

126 r. Rabinal Achi, like much of Mesoamerican literature, is fatalistic with emphasis on prophecies and fulfillment (p. 4). Ditto the Book of Mormon 1 Nephi 12:20, 1 Nephi 13:35, Alma 45:10-11, Helaman 13:8-10 which goes to great lengths to document prophecies fulfilled Mormon 8:6-7.

127 r. Cawek was put on trial before he was executed (p. 5). Alma 51:19 shows this was standard practice among the Nephites as well. Abinadi Mosiah 17:7 and Nehor Alma 1:10 both went through formal legal proceedings before being executed. See the blog article "The Legal Cases in the Book of Mormon."

128 r. Cawek confessed to multiple misdeeds before he was dispatched (p. 5). In the Book of Mormon some malefactors confessed their sins before they died Jacob 7:16-20Alma 1:15, Alma 30:52-59.

129 r. Cawek was executed atop Red Mountain. The top of Hill Manti was a place of execution in the lesser land of Zarahemla Alma 1:15.

130 r. At one point in the drama, Cawek drinks a beverage Lord Five Thunder calls poison (p. 16). Poison figures in the Book of Mormon narrative as well Alma 47:18, Alma 55:30-32.

131 r. Cawek wished he could chop through "the root, the trunk" of Lord Five Thunder's family (p. 17) to eradicate the bloodline. The Book of Mormon also uses a tree as a metaphor for a family 2 Nephi 21:1 citing Isaiah 11:1, The entire chapter of Jacob 5 is an extended allegory in which trees represent people. Cawek's wording is similar to 3 Nephi 25:1 where the Savior cites Malachi 4:1 to mean a wicked person's bloodline can be destroyed at the root. In the Book of Mormon the phrase "hewn down" refers explicitly to trees 3 Nephi 14:19 and to people Mormon 6:11.

132 r. Cawek raised a rebel army that threatened his own people (p. 17). This scenario plays out repeatedly in the Book of Mormon Alma 2:10, Alma 48:1-3, Helaman 1:15.

133 r. Lord Five Thunder briefly considered the possibility that under different circumstances Cawek could have become his son-in-law (p. 17). In the Book of Mormon King Lamoni offered Ammon his daughter's hand in marriage Alma 17:24.

134 r. Cawek was promised land as a reward for military service (p. 18). The Book of Mormon records an instance where Lamanites were given land following military service Alma 62:29.

135 r. In a military campaign, Cawek spied on enemy forces (p. 18). Spies were common in Book of Mormon military strategies Mosiah 9:1, Alma 2:21, Alma 56:35.

136 r. The Rabinal believed land could be cursed (p. 18). The Book of Mormon repeatedly mentions land being cursed Jacob 3:3, Alma 37:28, 3 Nephi 3:24.

137 r. Man of Rabinal, a decorated warrior, had a gem inserted in a nose piercing (pp. 26, 278). The Book of Mormon mentions a nose jewel 2 Nephi 13:21 citing Isaiah 3:21.

138 r. The Rabinal bound captives with henequen rope or cord (pp. 28, 75). In the Book of Mormon captives were bound with strong cords Alma 14:22, Alma 20:29, Alma 26:29.

139 r. In his second speech, Cawek issued the injunctive E'ja "Listen!" (p. 31). The Book of Mormon equivalent is "give ear" 2 Nephi 4:3, 2 Nephi 9:40Alma 36:1 or "hearken" Mosiah 2:9.

140 r. In his second speech, Cawek used the mournful exclamation "Alas" two times in a couplet invoking deity (p. 31). The Book of Mormon equivalent is "wo, wo" which is used in various contexts involving deity 1 Nephi 1:13, Mosiah 3:12, 3 Nephi 29:5.

141 r. Words spoken by Man of Rabinal caused Cawek's face and teeth to hurt (p. 31). The Book of Mormon mentions a painful condition called gnashing of teeth Mosiah 16:2, Alma 14:21, Alma 40:13. The Book of Mormon also describes God's mouth and lips as active agents whose words can smite and slay 2 Nephi 30:9.

142 r. Cawek addressed Man of Rabinal with the honorific title "Man of Glory" (p. 32). In the Book of Mormon, meritorious humans achieve glory 1 Nephi 14:14, Jacob 4:11, Alma 14:11. High ranking officials have earthly glory 2 Nephi 18:7, 2 Nephi 24:18, Ether 8:9. Glory is promised to the righteous in the hereafter Alma 22:14Alma 36:28.

143 r. Cawek, in self-effacement, called himself a little bird (p. 35). The Book of Mormon compares rebellious Israel to small chicks 3 Nephi 10:4-6.

144 r. Man of Rabinal accused Cawek of enticing Lord Five Thunder's subjects to rebel and leave his service (pp. 36, 58). Rebel leaders enticed Nephite dissenters to change loyalties and abandon their homeland Helaman 11:25, 3 Nephi 1:28.

145 r. Nine Rabinal warriors died in battle and their forearms were used for the casualty count (p. 37). When Ammon maimed and killed robbers at the waters of Sebus, his Lamanite colleagues brought severed arms as proof of his exploits when they made their report to King Lamoni Alma 17:39.

146 r. The Rabinal conceived of their capital city as the navel of the sky, navel of the earth (p. 38). The Nephite equivalent was "center" Helaman 1:24-27 or "heart" Helaman 1:18 of the land.

147 r. The Rabinal had a place they called Pan Cha'lib' "Bountiful" or "Abundance" near Xoyab'aj "Joyabaj" (pp. 42, 292). The place name Bountiful is attested more than 30 times in the Nephite text Alma 53:3.
The Rabinal Bountiful in Context
148 r. The Rabinal used cacao beans as media of exchange, as well as q'ana "yellow" and saqi "white" pwaq "money." Gold was yellow and silver was white. (pp. 49, 295). Among the Nephites, gold and silver served as stores of value and media of exchange Mosiah 22:12, Alma 11:7.

149 r. The Rabinal conceived their world as having chi kaj pa "four edges" and chi kaj xukutal "four corners" (pp. 50, 296). The Nephites conceived their world as having four quarters 1 Nephi 19:16, 3 Nephi 5:24-26.

150 r. The Rabinal thought of territory as being pa jun warab' al "a day's journey" or pa kay warab' al "two days' journey" in length or width. A literal translation would be "one place to sleep" or "two places to sleep" (pp. 50, 296). The Nephite standard unit of distance measure was one day's journey Mosiah 23:3, Alma 8:6, Alma 22:32, Helaman 4:7. See the blog articles "Land Southward Travel Times" and "Test #6 Relative Distances." See also the blog article "Quichean Distance Measurement."

151 r. In his sixth speech, Man of Rabinal says Cawek lost his strength through misdeeds and no longer enjoyed a comparative military advantage over his enemies (pp. 52, 57). Mosiah 1:13 prophecies a time when the Nephites will become weak because of sin and no longer prevail over the Lamanites. Helaman 4:24 and Mormon 2:26 record fulfillment of that prophecy.

152 r. Man of Rabinal gloried in his numerous posterity of descendants, children and sons (p. 53). Nephi saw in vision multitudes of Lehite descendants 1 Nephi 12:1.

153 r. The Rabinal recognized a standard unit of distance measure they called a k'a'm "cord" (pp. 55, 342). It equalled twenty strides or ten paces, about 18 meters. The Nephites had a standard unit of distance measure. See point #150 above. The Nephites also had standard units of measure for value Alma 11:4, volume of grain Alma 11:7, and time 3 Nephi 8:2.

154 r. Rabinal Achi mentions about two dozen place names, most of which can be correlated with known places on the modern map.
Geonyms Attested in Rabinal Achi
The extent of the territory attested in the play is about 130 kilometers X 80 kilometers. Contained within that area are parts of the K'iche', Kaqchikel, and Q'eqchi' domains. The wars described in the text reduced Rabinal holdings to about 900 square kilometers which is consistent with the sizes we have proposed for Nephite and Lamanite lands. See the blog article "Test #7 Land Areas."

155 r. In Cawek's fifth speech he says that Rabinal lands are not extensive, approximately one day's journey, two days' journey across (p. 50). This map shows the approximate extent of Rabinal lands ca. AD 1430 to which Cawek was referring.
Rabinal Territory ca. AD 1430 
This area is very close to 30 air kilometers in diameter. 15 air kilometers is the metric we derived for the Nephite standard unit of distance measure "one day's journey." See the blog article "Land Southward Travel Times." The Rabinal distance "one day's journey" also meant about 15 air kilometers. 7.7 air kilometers from Chicabracan to Utatlan were less than a day's journey (p. 184). In fact, they were one-half a day's journey (p. 258) which closely corroborates the 15 air kilometers per day metric. The fact that 9.5 air kilometers from Between the Wasps Nests to Pitted and Planted were less than one day's march (p. 254) further corroborates this distance.

156 r. Cultures worldwide recognize that earthquakes shake the earth. The Rabinal had the curious idea that both the sky and the earth could shake (p. 58). The Nephites & Jaredites had the same idea 2 Nephi 23:13 citing Isaiah 13:13, Ether 4:9.

157 r. Cawek led an army that moved from Big Tree north to Lord's Place "Chichicastenango" and then north to Earthquake "Chicabracan". At that point the text says they were a "very short distance" from the Quiche capital, Utatlan "Quiche Mountain, Quiche Valley" aka "Old Camp & Whisker Place" (p. 59). How long was a very short distance in Rabinal parlance? 7.71 air kilometers as the map below shows.
Very Short Distance from Earthquake to Quiche Capital
The Book of Mormon uses the terms "near" and "by" to designate places that are close to each other. In the blog article "Things Near and Far" we analyzed all occurrences of the word "near" in a spatial context and concluded that two places must be within 5 kilometers to be near each other in the Nephite worldview. Looking at the word "by" in the blog article "By and By" we concluded that two places must be within 25 kilometers and have a clear border to be by each other in Nephite usage. The Rabinal idea that less than 8 kilometers was a very short distance fits the Book of Mormon pattern. The Book of Mormon would have said they were by each other, recognizing the river between them as a border.

158 r. In Man of Rabinal's seventh speech, we learn that when Lord Five Thunder was outside the walls of his fortress, he was heavily guarded (p. 62). When King Limhi ventured outside the walls of the city of Nephi, he had his guards with him Mosiah 7:10.

159 r. In Rabinal Achi, planting crops was considered a noble virtue (p. 66) as it was in the Book of Mormon Enos 1:20-21, Alma 62:29.

160 r. Cawek, a foreign noble, offered to be a servant in the household of Lord Five Thunder (p. 71). Ammon, one-time heir to the Nephite throne, offered to be a servant in the household of King Lamoni Alma 17:25.

161 r. Cawek reminded Man of Rabinal that it would be a mark of greatness if he let his prisoner of war go free (p. 71). The quintessential great Nephite military commander, Moronilet thousands of prisoners of war go free during his illustrious career Alma 44:15, Alma 44:20, Alma 62:27-28.

162 r. Rabinal Achi has several passages where personal possessions are mentioned. The list always includes the couplet q'ana and saqi "gold and silver." The Book of Mormon uses some form of the couplet "gold and silver" 43 times in describing personal property 1 Nephi 3:16, Jacob 1:16, Mosiah 22:12.

163 r. Just before he took his captive to Lord Five Thunder, Man of Rabinal itemized Cawek's personal effects. He had gold and silver, weapons, and apparel (pp. 70, 72). Lists containing gold, silver, and apparel occur several times in the Book of Mormon 1 Nephi 13:7, Alma 1:29, Ether 9:17.

164 r. In his eighth speech, Man of Rabinal said he was perfected and completed because of his Lord (pp. 72, 73). Moroniadmonishes us to be perfected in Christ Moroni 10:32.

165 r. Since Cawek's was a capital case, his fate could only be decided by the Rabinal supreme ruler (p. 73). In Nephite times, only the governor could authorize a death warrant 3 Nephi 6:22-15.

166 r. Man of Rabinal said it was an act of God that caused Cawek to fall under his  power (p. 75). The Book of Mormon repeatedly says God delivers people either into Mosiah 11:21Alma 44:3, or out of Mosiah 2:4, Alma 58:37 the hands of their enemies.

167 r. Man of Rabinal described several fortresses and sets of defensive walls presided over by multiple lords (p. 76). Moronicaused fortifications to be built around every Nephite city Alma 50:1.

168 r. Lord Five Thunder in his palace had a bench adorned with metal (p. 79). King Noah in his palace had a throne ornamented with gold and silver Mosiah 11:9.

169 r. In the Rabinal palace nobles had rainment adorned with metal (p. 79). The Zoramites had costly apparel with ornaments of gold Alma 31:28.

170 r. Craftsmen worked metal and jade inside the walls of Lord Five Thunder's fortress (p. 78). Artisans worked wood, copper, and brass insides the walls of King Noah's temple Mosiah 11:10.

171 r. Lord Five Thunder delighted in an alcoholic beverage that brought him dreams (p. 79). King Noah made wine in abundance and became a wine-bibber Mosiah 11:15.

172 r. The Rabinal had fabric with double warp, tamped weft and weaving tightly done (pp. 79, 86). The Jaredites and Nephites possessed fine silks, fine-twined linen, and all manner of precious clothing 1 Nephi 13:7, Helaman 6:13, Ether 10:24.

173 r. Lord Five Thunder expected respectful subjects to bow and lower their face in his presence (pp. 81, 87). Lamanite emperors expected their subjects to bow before them Alma 22:2, Alma 47:22-23.

174 r. The Rabinal were familiar with both highland and lowland topographies (p. 83). In the Book of Mormon, relative elevation differences are distinguished by the words "up" and "down." See the blog article "Test #1 Ups and Downs."

175 r. Man of Rabinal's weapons were gifts from Lord Five Thunder (p. 83). In the Book of Mormon, Moroniprovided defensive armaments and weapons to his soldiers Alma 43:19, Alma 55:16-17. Amalickiah armed his Lamanite soldiers Alma 51:9.

176 r. In Rabinal Achi, mud is associated with humility (p. 91). The equivalent term in the Book of Mormon is "dust of the earth" Mosiah 2:25Mosiah 4:2, Helaman 12:7.

177 r. Among the Rabinal, being dead was equated with being lost (p. 100). The Book of Mormon also associates death with being lost Mosiah 16:4-7, Alma 12:22-24, Alma 42:6.

The 2003 edition of Rabinal Achi includes 31 images of Maya, Mixtec, and Aztec art that illustrate aspects of the drama. Proveniences of that art are shown as triangle symbols on the map below. Light blue pushpins identify locations mentioned in the play.
Origin Sites of Art Illustrating Facets of Rabinal Achi
Of particular interest are Chama, our correlate for the city of Manti, Palenque and Pomona which are in the territory we identify as the lesser land of Zarahemla, and Yaxchilan in the area we correlate with the land of Melek.

178 r. Attending certain royal ceremonies demonstrated loyalty to the king (p. 134). King Lamoni was threatened for not attending a feast given by his father, the Lamanite emperor Alma 20:9.

179 r. The Rabinal thought of lightning and meteors as divine weapons (p. 135). The Mayan name K'ak' Tiliw Kan Chaak meant "thunderbolt fire that burns in the sky (p. 141). The Book of Mormon describes lightning as being under divine control Helaman 14:26 and calls it part of "the fire of the anger of the Lord" 2 Nephi 26:6.

180 r. Nobles among the Rabinal were almost certainly familiar with the Caribbean (p. 136). In our correlation, the Caribbean is the Book of Mormon's east sea.

181 r. The Quichean peoples understood the word patan "burden" to also mean an office or duty (p. 140). Ditto in the Book of Mormon 2 Nephi 24:25 citing Isaiah 14:25, Mosiah 29:34.

182 r. Cawek was executed by decapitation (p. 145). Decapitation is attested in the Book of Mormon 2 Nephi 4:18, 1 Nephi 22:13, Ether 9:5, Ether 15:30-31.

183 r. The Maya linked lineages with named places (p. 147). The Nephites linked lineages with place names Alma 8:7.

184 r. Classic Maya carved stone stelae were called te' tun "tree stone." Royals had their lineage trees engraved on their stones (p. 149). Coriantumr, former Jaredite king, carved his genealogy on his stela Omni 1:22.

185 r. Quichean lords fasted and prayed for their people (p. 139). Fasting and prayer are mentioned together as a couplet nine times in the Book of Mormon Omni 1:26, Mosiah 27:23, Moroni 6:5.

186 r. Rabinal Achi was performed originally from a glyphic book of some sort. Hieroglyphic texts are extremely terse. The pictorial version may have been more like program notes for the play rather than an actual script or libretto (pp. 158, 239). Nephite scribes, engraving characters in reformed Egyptian on metal plates, were hindered in their expression because of the terse nature of their language. They were trading articulation facility for archival longevity Jacob 4:1, Ether 12:24-25.

187 r. Rabinal Achi has many literary flashbacks (p. 174). The Book of Mormon has many literary flashbacks such as the records of the Zeniff colony in Mosiah 9-22 and the account of the sons of Mosiah's fourteen year mission to the Lamanites in Alma 17-26.

188 r. Throughout ancient Mesoamerica, kings were killed by assasins (p. 179). The Book of Mormon records several instances of rulers being killed by assasins Helaman 6:15Helaman 9:6, Ether 9:6, Ether 14:9.

189 r. Quicab, Quiche antagonist behind the scenes in Rabinal Achi, forbade his subjects "to travel the roads" which meant he did not want them to migrate (p. 182). This recalls the incident with the people of Morianton chased by Teancum and his army Alma 50:33.

190 r. In Rabinal Achi, rebels outside the bounds of legitimate political authority are "forest people" (p. 183). Tn the Book of Mormon, rebels outside the bounds of legitimate political authority live in the "wilderness" Helaman 2:11, Helaman 11:31.

191 r. Rabinal Achi implies the second Kaqchikel capital, Iximche, was founded in a time of hunger (p. 184). The Book of Mormon uses the term "famine" 31 times 2 Nephi 1:18, Helaman 11:8, Ether 10:1.

192 r. Rabinal Achi almost always describes Lord Five Thunder's headquarters complex on Red Mountain as nimal "great" (p. 198). A number of cities in the Book of Mormon are called "great" 1 Nephi 11:13, Alma 16:9Helaman 13:12,

193 r. Prayers in K'iche' Mayan address Tiox, supreme celestial deity, then Juyub' Taq'aj "Mountain-Valley," ultimate terrestrial deity; followed by qatit qaman, "our grandmothers our grandfathers" referring to ancestors (p. 216). This heaven, earth, ancestor combination also appears in the Book of Mormon. 1 Nephi 1:14 combines Father Lehi with the Lord God of heaven and earth. 3 Nephi 15-17 includes Jesus Christ, creator of heavens and earth, and the sons of God. Ether 4:7 describes the brother of Jared and Jesus Christ, Father of heavens and earth.

194 r. Professional orators ply their trade in highland Maya towns today (p. 239). The Book of Mormon has many instances where preachers and politicians influenced their audiences through flattery Jacob 7:2, Alma 30:47, Ether 8:2.

195 r. Prayers are offered around household altars in highland Maya homes (p. 241). Nephiprayed atop the tower in his household garden Helaman 7:10-11.

196 r. The highland Maya use candles (p. 241) as did the Nephites 3 Nephi 8:21.

197 r. Rabinal Achi mentions bloodletting rituals (p. 248). The Book of Mormon describes blood as an active agent with salvific properties Mosiah 3:16, Alma 21:9, Helaman 5:9.

198 r. In the play, Cawek gives his words the power of an oath by invoking deity (p. 249). Oaths are mentioned dozens of times in the Book of Mormon 1 Nephi 4:37, Mosiah 19:25, Alma 44:11.

199 r. Man of Rabinal believed his power as a warrior came from a divine source (p. 249). This idea is well attested in the Book of Mormon Mosiah 1:13, Helaman 4:243 Nephi 3:2,

200 r. In the play, Man of Rabinal insults Cawek by asking if he was born of clouds or mist (p. 250). This slanders Cawek's parentage. The Book of Mormon has the insulting expressions "child of hell" Alma 11:23, Alma 54:11 and "sons of a liar" Alma 20:13.

201 r. The Rabinal continue to maintain a number of shrines with hearths where pilgrims burn offerings. Five of those shrines are visited prior to each re-enactment of Rabinal Achi. Book of Mormon peoples considered burnt offerings part of their observance of the law of Moses 1 Nephi 5:9, Mosiah 2:3.

202 r. Man of Rabinal's seventh speech gives us some useful information about distances. He was marking boundaries around Lake Atitlan, mentioning Sculpture Tree (Panajachel) and two other places whose precise location is unknown. He then "traversed the length and breadth of the mountains and valleys" (p. 62) to rescue Lord Five Thunder at Bath. Tedlock interprets his words to mean he made a long journey (p. 259). We can map the distance from Panajachel to Bath.
65 Air Kilometers Sculpture Tree to Bath
It turns out to be a little over 4 days' journey using the metric described in point #155 above. The Book of Mormon would have called this several days' journey.

203 r. Rabinal Achi distinguishes between civilized, settled people living a courtly life and barbarians wandering around the forests (p. 262). The Book of Mormon makes a similar distinction between Nephites and Lamanites Jarom 1:6, Enos 1:20-21.

204 r. Man of Rabinal surrendered his weapons to find rest (p. 264). The Book of Mormon associates weapons surrender with peace Alma 24:19, Alma 44:14-15.

205 r. Cawek wished he could bind Lord Five Thunder's lower lip to his upper lip (p. 265). In other words, he wished he could curse Lord Five Thunder to become mute. The Book of Mormon records instances of leaders being struck dumb through a curse Mosiah 27:19, Alma 30:50.

206 r. Cawek addressed Lord Five Thunder as a mere mortal, not a demi-god (p. 265). King Benjamin dismissed the notion that he was anything more than a mortal man Mosiah 2:10-11.

207 r. Cawek engaged in a ritual invoking the four cardinal directions east, west, north and south (p. 266). The Book of Mormon makes it clear the Nephites thought of space in terms of these same four cardinal directions 2 Nephi 29:11, Mosiah 27:6, 3 Nephi 20:13.

208 r. The highland Maya conceived of an ideal city state as a town and its surrounding lands. Hills surrounded the town and mountains surrounded the hills (p. 269). Lands in the Book of Mormon follow this city state pattern. A principal city is surrounded by its adjacent lands Mosiah 7:21, Mosiah 23:25, Alma 43:25. Lands contain hills Alma 1:15, Mormon 1:3, Mormon 6:2. Lands border wilderness Omni 1:13Alma 8:5, Alma 31:3, Wilderness can be mountainous Helaman 11:31, 3 Nephi 3:20.

This list of correspondences continues in the blog articles entitled "Quichean Directionality" and "Titulo de Totonicapan."